Project

General

Profile

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<section class="section greySection terminologySection">
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    <h2 class="uk-text-center">
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      Approach
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    </h2>
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    <div class="uk-margin-large-top uk-card uk-card-default uk-card-body">
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      <p class="uk-margin-top">Our methodological approach is based on the following operational quality criteria:</p>
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      <ul>
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        <li><span class="uk-text-bold">Openness and transparency:</span> Methodological assumptions are openly and clearly presented.</li>
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        <li><span class="uk-text-bold">Coverage and accuracy:</span> As detailed in <a href="https://graph.openaire.eu/" target="_blank">graph.openaire.eu</a>
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          multiple data sources are ingested in the OpenAIRE research graph for coverage to the fullest extent possible, in order to provide meaningful indicators.</li>
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        <li><span class="uk-text-bold">Clarity and replicability:</span> We describe our construction methodology in detail, so that
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          it can be verified and used by the scholarly communication community to create ongoing updates to our proposed statistics and indicators.</li>
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        <li><span class="uk-text-bold">Readiness and timeliness:</span> The methodology is built around well-established open databases
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          and already tested knowledge extraction technologies - natural language processing (NLP)/machine-learning (ML) - using operational
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          workflows in OpenAIRE to warrant timely results.</li>
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        <li><span class="uk-text-bold">Trust and robustness:</span> Our methodology also strives to be reliable, robust, and aligned
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          to other assessment methods so that it can be operationalized, used and reused, in conjunction with other assessment methods.</li>
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      </ul>
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      <div class="uk-text-small uk-text-italic uk-text-right">The text above is modified from <a href="https://op.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/56cc104f-0ebb-11ec-b771-01aa75ed71a1"
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                                                                                          target="_blank">this report</a> (DOI: 10.2777/268348).</div>
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    </div>
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    <div class="uk-margin-large-top">
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      <h3>Step-by-step</h3>
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      <div class="how uk-h6">
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        <div class="uk-flex uk-flex-wrap">
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          <div class="uk-width-1-3@s first uk-text-muted">
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            <div>
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              <img src="../../../assets/img/methodology/1.png">
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            </div>
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            <div class="uk-text-center">
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              <span class="uk-text-bold uk-text-uppercase">Starting</span> from existing<br>research-related data sources
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            </div>
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          </div>
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          <div class="uk-width-1-3@s second uk-text-muted">
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            <div>
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              <img src="../../../assets/img/methodology/2.png">
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            </div>
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          </div>
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          <div class="uk-width-1-3@s third uk-text-muted">
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            <div>
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              <img src="../../../assets/img/methodology/3.png">
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            </div>
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            <div class="uk-text-center">
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              build an open, global<br>and trusted Research graph
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            </div>
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          </div>
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        </div>
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        <div class="uk-flex uk-flex-wrap">
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          <div class="uk-width-1-3@s fourth uk-flex-last@s uk-text-muted">
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            <div>
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              <img src="../../../assets/img/methodology/4.png">
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            </div>
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            <div class="uk-text-center">
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              we perform <span class="uk-text-bold uk-text-uppercase">Statistical Analysis</span> and produce
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              <span class="portal-color">Open Science Indicators</span>
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            </div>
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          </div>
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          <div class="uk-width-1-3@s fifth uk-text-muted">
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            <div>
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              <img src="../../../assets/img/methodology/5.png">
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            </div>
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            <div class="uk-text-center">
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              furthermore <span class="uk-text-bold uk-text-uppercase">Network<br>Analysis</span> producing
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              <span class="portal-color">Collaboration Indicators</span>
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            </div>
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          </div>
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          <div class="uk-width-1-3@s sixth uk-flex-first@s uk-text-muted">
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            <div>
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              <img src="../../../assets/img/methodology/6.png">
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            </div>
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            <div class="uk-text-center">
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              Often combine with external data
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              (patents, social, company) and
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              perform <span class="uk-text-bold uk-text-uppercase">Impact Analysis</span> to
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              produce <span class="portal-color">Innovation Indicators</span>
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            </div>
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          </div>
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        </div>
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        <div class="final uk-text-muted">
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          <div>
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            <img src="../../../assets/img/methodology/Asset%201.png">
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          </div>
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        </div>
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      </div>
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    </div>
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  </div>
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</section>
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<section class="section greySection terminologySection" id="sect-tabs">
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    <h2 class="uk-text-center">
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      Terminology and construction
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    </h2>
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    <div class="uk-margin-large-top">
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      <!--LAPTOP & PAD LANDSCAPE-->
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      <ul class="uk-visible@m uk-tab uk-tab-large uk-flex-center" data-uk-tab="{connect:'#terminology_tabbed',animation: 'slide-bottom'}">
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        <li class="uk-active" aria-expanded="true"><a>Entities</a></li>
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        <li aria-expanded="false"><a>Inherited and Inferred Attributes</a></li>
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        <li aria-expanded="false"><a>Constructed Attributes</a></li>
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      </ul>
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      <!--MOBILE & PAD PORTRAIT-->
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      <ul class="uk-hidden@m uk-tab" data-uk-tab="{connect:'#terminology_tabbed',animation: 'slide-bottom'}">
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        <li class="uk-active" aria-expanded="true"><a>Entities</a></li>
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        <li aria-expanded="false"><a>Inherited and Inferred Attributes</a></li>
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        <li aria-expanded="false"><a>Constructed Attributes</a></li>
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      </ul>
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      <ul id="terminology_tabbed" class="uk-switcher">
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        <!--Entities tab-->
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        <li aria-hidden="false" class="uk-active" style="animation-duration: 200ms;">
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          <table>
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            <tr>
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              <th class="important">Research Outcomes</th>
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              <td>
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                <div>There are currently four different types of research outcomes in the OpenAIRE Research
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                  Graph:
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                </div>
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                <ul class="portal-circle">
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                  <li>publications</li>
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                  <li>datasets</li>
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                  <li>software</li>
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                  <li>other research products</li>
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                </ul>
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                <div class="uk-margin-small-top">
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                  OpenAIRE deduplicates (merges) different records of research outcomes and keeps the metadata of all
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                  instances.
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                </div>
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              </td>
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            </tr>
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            <tr>
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              <th>publication</th>
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              <td>
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                <p>Research outcome intended for human reading (published articles, pre-prints, conference papers,
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                  presentations, technical reports, etc.)</p>
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                <p>
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                  Only peer-reviewed publications are considered in the OS Observatory, unless explicitly stated otherwise
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                  (see tab Constructed Attributes for definition of peer-review).
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                </p>
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              </td>
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            </tr>
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            <tr>
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              <th>dataset</th>
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              <td>
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                <p>Research data</p>
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                <p>Granularity is not defined by OpenAIRE, it reflects the granularity supported by
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                  the sources from which the description of the dataset has been collected.</p>
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              </td>
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            </tr>
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            <tr>
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              <th>software</th>
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              <td>Source code or software package developed and/or used in a research context</td>
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            </tr>
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            <tr>
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              <th>other research product</th>
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              <td>Anything that does not fall in the previous categories (e.g. workflow, methods, protocols)</td>
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            </tr>
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          </table>
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          <div class="uk-text-small uk-margin-small-top">
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            <img src="../../../assets/img/Open_Research_Graph.svg" style="opacity: 0.4">
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            <span class="uk-margin-small-left uk-text-baseline uk-text-muted">More information at <a
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              href="https://graph.openaire.eu" class="graph-color">OpenAIRE Research Graph</a>.</span>
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          </div>
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        </li>
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        <!--Inherited and Inferred Attributes tab-->
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        <li aria-hidden="true" style="animation-duration: 200ms;">
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          <div>
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            <p class="uk-text-center">
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              The attributes of entities listed below are either inherited via entries in the harvested metadata records
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              or automatically generated by our inference (text and data mining) algorithms.
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            </p>
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          </div>
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          <table>
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            <!--<tr>-->
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              <!--<th>Organization & Country</th>-->
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              <!--<td>-->
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                <!--<p><span class="uk-text-bold">For research outcomes:</span> the affiliated organizations of its-->
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                  <!--authors (and their country)</p>-->
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                <!--<p><span class="uk-text-bold">For projects:</span> the organizations participating in the project-->
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                  <!--(i.e. beneficiaries of the grant) and-->
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                  <!--their countries-->
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                <!--</p>-->
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                <!--<p>-->
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                  <!--<span class="uk-text-bold">Country code mapping: </span>-->
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                  <!--<a href="https://api.openaire.eu/vocabularies/dnet:countries" target="_blank">-->
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                    <!--https://api.openaire.eu/vocabularies/dnet:countries</a>-->
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                <!--</p>-->
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              <!--</td>-->
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            <!--</tr>-->
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            <tr>
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              <th>Organization</th>
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              <td>
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                <p>For research outcomes, this refers to the affiliated organizations of its authors</p>
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                <p>For projects: the organizations participating in the project (i.e. beneficiaries of the grant)</p>
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                <p>Country code mapping: <a href="https://api.openaire.eu/vocabularies/dnet:countries"
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                                            target="_blank">https://api.openaire.eu/vocabularies/dnet:countries</a>
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                </p>
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                <p>The OpenAIRE research graph is in the process of improving the organization database with the newly developed
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                  <a href="https://beta.orgs.openaire.eu/" target="_blank">OpenOrgs</a> tool.</p>
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              </td>
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            </tr>
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            <tr>
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              <th>Country</th>
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              <td>
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                <p>Unless stated otherwise this refers to the country of the affiliated organization</p>
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                <p>The OS Observatory relies on the coverage and quality of this attribute (as we present results at the country-level),
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                  therefore we are continuously working on improving it, via ingesting additional affiliation links and cleaning the data.</p>
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              </td>
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            </tr>
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            <tr>
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              <th>Share of GDP for R&D</th>
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              <td>
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                <p>The share of the Gross Domestic Product of a country that has gone into research and development. We
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                  are currently using 2018 data as presented <a href="https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/products-datasets/-/tsc00001"
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                                                                target="_blank">here</a>.</p>
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              </td>
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            </tr>
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            <tr>
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              <th>Funder</th>
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              <td>
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                <p>Funders in OpenAIRE; that is funders for which there is a linked project or research outcome in the OpenAIRE
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                  Research Graph. Please check the Funder filter on the sidebar, <a href="https://explore.openaire.eu/search/find"
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                                                                                                        target="_blank">here</a>, for a list.</p>
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              </td>
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            </tr>
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            <tr>
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              <th>Funding organization</th>
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              <td>
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                <p>As listed in the registry of grant-giving organizations: <a href="https://www.crossref.org/services/funder-registry/"
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                                                                               target="_blank">https://www.crossref.org/services/funder-registry/</a></p>
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              </td>
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            </tr>
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            <tr>
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              <th>Type</th>
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              <td>
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                <p>The sub-type of a research outcome (e.g., a publication can be a pre-print, conference proceeding,
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                  article,
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                  etc.)</p>
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                <p><span class="uk-text-bold">Resource type mapping: </span>
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                  <a href="https://api.openaire.eu/vocabularies/dnet:result_typologies" target="_blank">https://api.openaire.eu/vocabularies/dnet:result_typologies</a>
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                  (click on the code to see the specific types for each result type)
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                </p>
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              </td>
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            </tr>
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            <tr>
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              <th>Access mode</th>
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              <td>
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                <p>The best available (across all instances) access rights of a research outcome</p>
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                <p>Types: open access (or open source for software), restricted, closed, embargo (= closed for a specific period of time, then open)</p>
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                <p><span class="uk-text-bold">Note:</span> definition of <span class="uk-text-bold">restricted</span>
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                  may vary by data source, it may refer to access rights being given to registered users, potentially behind a paywall.</p>
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              </td>
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            </tr>
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            <tr>
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              <th>CC licence</th>
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              <td>
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                <p>A Creative Commons copyright license (<a href="https://creativecommons.org/" target="_blank">https://creativecommons.org/</a>)</p>
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              </td>
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            </tr>
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            <tr>
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              <th>PID (persistent identifier)</th>
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              <td>
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                <p>A long-lasting reference to a resource</p>
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                <p><span class="uk-text-bold">Types: </span> <a
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                  href="http://api.openaire.eu/vocabularies/dnet:pid_types" target="_blank">http://api.openaire.eu/vocabularies/dnet:pid_types</a>
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                </p>
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              </td>
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            </tr>
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            <tr>
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              <th>Context</th>
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              <td>Related research community, initiative or infrastructure</td>
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            </tr>
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            <tr>
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              <th>Journal</th>
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              <td>The scientific journal an article is published in.</td>
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            </tr>
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            <tr>
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              <th>Publisher</th>
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              <td>The publisher of the venue (journal, book, etc.) of a research outcome</td>
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            </tr>
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            <tr>
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              <th class="important">Datasources (content providers)</th>
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              <td>
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                <p>The different datasources ingested in the OpenAIRE Research Graph.</p>
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                <div class="uk-text-bold">Content Provider Types:</div>
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                <ul class="portal-circle">
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                  <li>Repositories</li>
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                  <li>Open Access Publishers & Journals</li>
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                  <li>Aggregators</li>
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                  <li>Entity Registries</li>
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                  <li>Journal Aggregators</li>
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                  <li>CRIS (Current Research Information System)</li>
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                </ul>
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              </td>
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            </tr>
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            <tr>
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              <th>Repositories</th>
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              <td>Information systems where scientists upload the bibliographic metadata and payloads of their
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                research outcomes (e.g. PDFs of their scientific articles, CSVs of their data, archive with their
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                software), due to obligations from their organizations, their funders, or due to community practices
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                (e.g. ArXiv, Europe PMC, Zenodo).
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              </td>
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            </tr>
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            <tr>
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              <th>Open Access Publishers & Journals</th>
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              <td>Information systems of open access publishers or relative journals, which offer bibliographic
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                metadata and PDFs of their published articles.
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              </td>
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            </tr>
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            <tr>
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              <th>Aggregators</th>
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              <td>Information systems that collect descriptive metadata about research products from multiple sources
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                in order to enable cross-data source discovery of given research products (e,g, DataCite,
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                BASE, DOAJ).
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              </td>
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            </tr>
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            <tr>
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              <th>Entity Registries</th>
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              <td>Information systems created with the intent of maintaining authoritative registries of given
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                entities in the scholarly communication, such as OpenDOAR for the institutional repositories, re3data
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                for the data repositories, CORDA and other funder databases for projects and funding information.
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              </td>
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            </tr>
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            <tr>
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              <th>CRIS (Current Research Information System)</th>
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              <td>Information systems adopted by research and academic organizations to keep track of their research
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                administration records and relative results; examples of CRIS content are articles or datasets funded
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                by projects, their principal investigators, facilities acquired thanks to funding, etc.
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              </td>
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            </tr>
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          </table>
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          <div class="uk-text-small uk-margin-small-top">
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            <img src="../../../assets/img/Open_Research_Graph.svg" style="opacity: 0.4">
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            <span class="uk-margin-small-left uk-text-baseline uk-text-muted">More information at <a
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              href="https://graph.openaire.eu" class="graph-color">OpenAIRE Research Graph</a>.</span>
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          </div>
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        </li>
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        <!--Constructed Attributes tab-->
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        <li aria-hidden="true" style="animation-duration: 200ms;">
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          <div>
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            <p class="uk-text-center">The attributes of entities under this tab are constructed following the methodology described below.</p>
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          </div>
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          <table>
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            <thead>
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              <tr>
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                <th>Attribute</th>
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                <td class="uk-text-bold">Definition</td>
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                <td class="uk-text-bold">Construction</td>
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              </tr>
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            </thead>
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            <tbody>
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              <tr>
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                <th>
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                  <p><span class="uk-text-bold uk-text-primary">Peer-review</span></p>
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                </th>
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                <td>
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                  <p>“A process by which something proposed (as for research or publication) is evaluated by a group of
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                    experts in the appropriate field.” (Merriam-Webster)</p>
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                </td>
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                <td>
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                  <p>Tentatively, a publication is considered peer-reviewed if it satisfies the following two criteria:</p>
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                  <ul>
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                    <li>It has a DOI that can be resolved through Crossref.</li>
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                    <li>It is not only found as grey literature (pre-prints, reviews, etc).</li>
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                  </ul>
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                  <p>We are in the process of updating this construction using the actual peer-review status of the venue of publication.</p>
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                </td>
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              </tr>
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              <tr>
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                <th>
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                  <p><span class="uk-text-bold uk-text-primary">Gold open access</span></p>
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                </th>
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                <td>
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                  <p>A scientific publication with open access provided by the publisher</p>
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                </td>
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                <td>
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                  <p>A publication is Gold OA if it is published in a journal listed in the DOAJ.</p>
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                  <p>We are in the process of incorporating the ISSN-Gold-4.0 list of Gold OA journals in our construction
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                    (<a href="https://pub.uni-bielefeld.de/record/2944717" target="_blank">https://pub.uni-bielefeld.de/record/2944717</a>).</p>
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                </td>
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              </tr>
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              <tr>
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                <th>
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                  <p><span class="uk-text-bold uk-text-primary">Green open access</span></p>
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                </th>
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                <td>
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                  <p>An open access scientific publication deposited in a repository.</p>
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                </td>
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                <td>
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                  <p>As in definition.</p>
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                </td>
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              </tr>
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              <tr>
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                <th>
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                  <p><span class="uk-text-bold uk-text-primary">Validated datasource</span></p>
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                </th>
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                <td>
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                  <p>A datasource of research outcomes that upholds metadata standards</p>
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                </td>
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                <td>
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                  <p>Datasources that have on average a score above 50 in the OpenAIRE Validator service, which checks
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                    metadata quality against the most recent OpenAIRE Guidelines.</p>
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                  <p>Validator service: <a href="https://www.openaire.eu/validator-registration-guide" target="_blank">https://www.openaire.eu/validator-registration-guide</a></p>
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                </td>
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              </tr>
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            </tbody>
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          </table>
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          <div class="uk-text-italic uk-margin-small-top">
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            <span class="uk-margin-small-left uk-text-baseline uk-text-muted">Stay tuned for updates coming soon!</span>
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          </div>
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        </li>
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      </ul>
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  </div>
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